1.The flag is the symbol of the country referring to its personality. The first national flag of modern Egypt appeared in 1923 when Egypt gained conditional independence from Great Britain in 1922. The color was green with a white crescent and three stars in the middle. It was established with a royal decree in 1923 after Egypt gained its independence from the British invasion in 1922.
2.In 1958, Egypt was unified with Syria and became the United Arab Republic. A new flag appeared and had three colors red, white with 2 green stars and black.
3.In 1972, the green stars in the flag were changed to be a golden hawk as a new Law was amended to change the flag.
4.In 1984, the hawk was replaced by a golden eagle , the eagle of Saladin, the Ayubbid Sultan who ruled Egypt and Syria in 12th Century, and the same Saladin of the Crusades.
The colors of the Egyptian flag are traditional Pan-Arabic colors. The red stripe refers to the period before the 1952 revolution; which brought a group of army officers to power after deposing King Farouk, the King of Egypt. This period was characterized by the struggle against British occupation of the country. The white symbolizes the revolution which ended the monarchy but without bloodshed. The color black symbolizes the end of the oppression of the Egyptian people at the hands of the Monarchy and British colonialism.
The national flag is hoisted on all governmental buildings, official holidays, on the inauguration of the People’s Assembly session and other occasions when the Minister of Interior orders that the flag be hoisted.
The flag is also hoisted daily on border posts and customs buildings.
It is also hoisted on Egyptian consulates and embassies overseas on Egypt National Day and other national occasions.
Country name & Capital: Country name: Conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local short form: Misr
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Egypt, the land of contrasts, has a large and varied character; the Nile with its fertile valley, the deserts and luxurious oases. Cairo, Egypt's bustling capital, whilst just a little further to the north, the Nile divides out a delta to the Mediterranean Sea. This northern coast has beautiful white sandy beaches. While in the East, there is Sinai with its desert coastal plains, lagoons and crystal clear waters of the red sea.
There are 76 million people in Egypt. 90% of which live along the banks of the Nile.
85% of the populations are Moslems and approximately 6 million people are Christian.
Language: The official language in Egypt is Arabic. English and French are widely spoken. Italian and German are also spoken in restaurants, hotels and many shops
Visa Obtain visa in advance unless you are traveling only to the Eastern Coast of Sinai from the Taba Terminal (10 km. south of Eilat).
There are three types of Egyptian visa:
• Tourist Visa: is usually valid for a period of 30 days and granted on either single or multiple entry basis.
• Entry Visa: is required for any foreigner arriving in Egypt for purposes other than tourism, (e.g. work, study, etc); the possession of avalid Entry Visa is needed to complete the residence procedure in Egypt.
• Transit Visa:In case your nation is not on the list of countries that need a pre-arrival-visa (please see list below), you can get your visa when you arrive in Egypt. The process is straightforward. You have to buy "visa stamps" for the amount of the fee required for your nationality. These fees vary from 15 to 50 US$ and can not be paid in Egyptian pounds. The stamps are stuck in your passport and you can proceed to the customs desk
Passports and Identity Cards:
All nationalities, except for Italian and German, need a passport with minimum 6 months validity.
Italian and German citizens can enter Egypt with their identity cards; the identity card must be valid for travel abroad and have a minimum validity of at least 6 months from arrival date. In such a case visitors need to have:
- 2 recent pictures
- 1 photocopy of the identity card
Upon arrival (or during the flight) they will be asked to fill in a form that will be handed over in the customs
Children must be in their parents’ passport or being in possession of their own passport or (for Italian and German citizens) identity card valid for travel abroad.
If the child is more than 10 years old, a recent picture must be on parents’ passport. Children more than 11 years old cannot be in parent’s passport and need a personal passport.
Nationalities that need pre-arrival visa:To apply for a visa, please contact the nearest Egyptian consulate. For a list of all diplomatic missions, see the Egyptian ministry of foreign affairs' website. Your application requires the following documents: A passport that is valid for at least another six months one passport-sized photograph A completed application form The visa fee depends on your nationality. South African and Sudanese citizens pay no fee; others pay between 20 and 60 US$. A tourist visa is valid for three months from the date of issue and allows you to stay in Egypt for 30 days from the date of your arrival
:: Bosnia and ::Herzegovina
:: Sri Lanka
Visitors entering Egypt at the overland border post to Taba to visit Gulf of Aqaba coast (from Taba to Sharm El Sheikh excluding Ras Mohammed National Park) and St. Catherine only, can be exempted from visa and granted a free residence permit for fourteen days to visit the area. Those in possession of a residence permit in Egypt are not required to obtain an entry visa if they leave the country and return to it within the validity of their residence permit or within six months, whichever period is less.
Passport is valid for at least 6 months and is required by all.
The national airline is Egypt Air (MS). All main carriers service throughout Egypt.
The main coastal ports are Alexandria, Port Said and Suez. A car ferry service is also available from port to port.
Borders:There are two border crossings between Israel and Egypt: one runs from Cairo via El Arish to Rafah on the north Sinai coast, and the other from Cairo via Suez and Taba to Eilat. Daily coaches leave early in the morning. Passengers in taxis and rented cars are not permitted to cross the borders between Israel and Egypt. Privately owned vehicles may be taken across the border, provided the appropriate documentation is obtained. Visas should normally be obtained in advance; however, travelers entering Egypt via Taba may be able to obtain visas at the border.
Egypt Air operates daily flights between Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, New Valley, Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada.
There is a steamer service that provides daily ferry service from cities. The traditional Nile sailing boats, or better known as feluccas, can be hired by the hour for a more relaxed sailing on the Nile. There are over 160 individually-owned boats of all categories operating on the Nile.
A comprehensive rail network offering a high standard of service is operated along the East West axis from Salloom on the Libyan border to Alexandria and Cairo, and along the Nile to Luxor and Aswan. There are also links to Port Said and Suez. There are frequent trains from Cairo to Alexandria, and also several luxuries air-conditioned day and night trains with sleeping and restaurant cars from Cairo to Luxor and Aswan for the Nile Valley tourist trade. For the overnight train, bookings should be made two weeks in advance through a travel agent
Drivers drive on the right side of the road. Besides the Nile Valley and Delta, which holds an extensive road network, there are paved roads along the Mediterranean and African Red Sea coasts. The speed limit is usually 90kph (56mph) on motorways and 100kph (62mph) on the desert motorway. Private motoring in the desert regions is not recommended without suitable vehicles and a guide.
The national bus system serves the Nile Valley and the coastal road. Main routes are from Cairo to St Catherine, Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Ras Sudr, El-Tour, Taba and Rafah; from Suez to El-Tour and Sharm El Sheikh; and from Sharm el-Sheikh to Taba, Nuweiba, El-Tour, Dahab and St Catherine.
Taxis are available in the larger cities and are metered. Long-distance group taxis for all destinations are cheap, although fares should be agreed in advance.
Visitors owning a
Cairo is famous for its night life and it is even livelier at night than during the day , As the sun goes down , the people come out for shopping , eating, drinking, dancing . You can also go to one of the casino on the River Nile. Most Nile-lovers are familiar with felucca, those small, slightly shabby, but conveniently cheap boats and this is the best way to enchant Nile so it is easy to relax on this boat, with the breeze in our faces and the Cairo skyline slipping past us slowly Moreover; you can relish your free time in many different places like, theatre, cinema, bars, cafe, disco tech, Nightclubs, where you can watch a show with belly dancer while eating or drinking.
The mild weather in Egypt allows almost all outdoor sports, including golf, tennis and horseback riding.In the desert, as well as in Sinai Mountain, trekking is also a popular activity during daytime, while barbecues under clear starry skies are recommended for the evening. In seaside resorts, diving, snorkeling, sailing and swimming are available along hundreds of kilometers of exceptional beautiful beaches.
Egypt offers many best buys, such as silver, leather, gold, mother of pearl, brass, copper and alabaster.Bargaining is expected in bazaars such as the Khan El Khalili, but in regular shops, prices are fixed.
Tipping worth 10-12% is added to hotel and restaurant bills but an extra tip of 5% is normal. Taxi drivers generally expect 10%
Weather & Climate:
The Jewel in Egypt's crown is its climate as Egypt has one of the sunniest climates in the world, although the summer months can get quite hot, the rest of the year is ideal and sunny. Rainy days are few and far between in Cairo, and nearly unknown in Upper Egypt. It would be wise to pack both light clothing in summer and warm clothing in winter during your visit in Egypt.
The year in Egypt divided into four seasons:
The winter begins from November to February.
The spring begins from March to May.
The Summer from June to August
The autumn from September to 21st of November.
Two hours in advance of Greenwich Mean Time and three hours for summer time which starts from the last Friday of April to last Friday in September.
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